Flamboyant style of late Gothic France
At the beginning he let’s define the concept of Gothic. The word is derived from Italian. gotico — unusual, barbaric and at first was used as a profanity. The term “Gothic” was introduced in the era of the Renaissance as pejorative designation total medieval skills, regarded as “barbaric”. Gothic called period in the development of medieval art in Western, Central and Eastern part of Europe from the XII to XV-XVI century. For Gothic typical of symbolic – allegorical thinking and conventionality of the artistic language. Gothic art was a cult on purpose and religious topics. It appealed to higher forces of the divine, of eternity, of the Christian worldview.
Gothic in its development is divided into Early Gothic, the heyday of Late Gothic. Gothic covers almost all works of art of this period: sculpture, painting, portrait miniatures, stained glass, fresco and many others.
The Gothic was not an accident. Prior to that the vaults in a Roman building were quite difficult, therefore, to withstand the weight of floors, wall supports for these vaults were built very thick and massive. The load in such constructions were transferred directly to the wall. The next stage in the development of codes occurred in Gothic architecture, the builders of which, have invented a new variantarray the load.
A massive wall that served as a support for the heavy vault was replaced by a system of buttresses and flying buttresses . Now the force was not transmitted directly vertically downward, and be allocated and diverted sideways by flying buttresses, leaving the buttresses. This allowed much thinning of walls, replacing them with a few reliable supporting buttresses. In addition, there has been a change in the masonry of the arches actually. Before they were entirely laid out of massive stones, and now the arch has come to represent a rigid rib (rib) that serve to support and distribute the load, and the spaces between the ribs gave a light brick, carrying now only the barrier, but not a carrier function. This discovery allowed the Gothic architects to overlap structurally new types of vaults unprecedentedly large spaces of the cathedrals and create a dizzying high ceilings.
In the Romanesque cathedrals and churches normally used the barrel vault, which relied on massive thick walls, which inevitably led to the decrease in the volume of the building and created additional difficulties in the construction, not to mention the fact that these were predetermined small number of Windows and their small size. With the advent of the cross vault, the system of columns, buttresses and flying buttresses of the cathedrals got kind of huge fantastic openwork structures.
The basic principle of design is that the arch is no longer leans against the wall (as in Romanesque buildings), now the pressure pass of the cross vault arches and ribs for columns (pillars) and horizontal stress is perceived by the flying buttresses and buttresses. This innovation allowed much easier to design due to redistribution of loads, and the walls turned into a simple lightweight “shell”, the thickness did not affect overall carrying capacity of the building, which allowed to do a lot of Windows, and wall painting, for lack of walls, lost the art of stained glass and sculpture.
In addition, Gothic has consistently applied the Lancet to form the arches, which also reduced their lateral thrust, allowing to direct a significant portion of the pressure arch for support. Pointed arches, which with the development of Gothic architecture become more and more elongated, pointed, expressed the main idea of Gothic architecture — the idea of aspiration of the temple up.
Often in place supports were added on the buttress was pinacle . The pinnacles is completed by the pointed spires of the pinnacles have often constructive. They could be just decorative elements and in the period of Mature Gothic are actively involved in creating the image of a Cathedral.
Almost always constructed two tiers of flying buttresses. First, the top tier was designed to support roofs, over time, becoming more steep, and therefore heavier. The second tier of flying buttresses also opposed dawasamu on the roof of the wind.
The possible span of the arch was determined by the width of the Central nave and, accordingly, the capacity of the Cathedral, which was important for that time, when the Cathedral was one of the main centers of urban life, alongside the town hall.
In Ancient Rome, used the following types — cylindrical, closed and cross. In Byzantium the applied cylindrical, sailing, cross. In architecture Mussels, India, China and the peoples of Central Asia and the Middle East was principally used Lancet. Western preferred Gothic cross vaults, most of their developing in the direction of straluceste.
Fan vault — formed ribs (ogiva and tierceron) emanating from one corner have the same curvature, the components are equal and the angles forming a funnel-shaped surface. Typical of English Gothic.
Star arch — shape cross Gothic arch. Has auxiliary ribs — tierceron and lierne. In the frame clearly shows the main diagonal ribs of the cross vault.
The Gothic arch cross — cross set that represents a frame structure in the form of a grid of ribs that will support the Stripping that allows you to focus pressure only on the corner posts. The main feature Gothic — shaped distinct diagonal ribs that make up the basic frame work, which bears the major loads. Stripping could be uploaded as a separate small arches, resting upon the diagonal ribs.
Ribbed vault — a vault on the frame of the ribs, perceiving and transmitting the load of the arch at its support.
In France the Gothic direction arose in the mid-12th century in Northern France (ildefon-France) and flourished in the early 13th century. Stone Gothic cathedrals in France had its traditional form and differed from the Romanesque style. In Gothic France organically intertwined lyricism and tragic affects, sublime spirituality and social satire, the grotesque and the mythical, folklorist, sharp life of the study.
French architecture, like the architecture of other countries of Western Europe, passed through the stages of early, Mature and late Gothic .
The late Gothic period begins with the XIV century and lasts for two centuries (XIV—XV centuries). The main feature of late Gothic architecture was not further perfection of Gothic design and refined sophistication of architectural decoration, in particular the use of carved stone decorative details reminiscent of the flickering flames of candles, which gave the reason to call such a direction in the late Gothic “flamboyant” style . Late Gothic buildings overloaded with decoration, intricate decorative carvings and intricate patterns nervures
A wonderful creation of the late Gothic architecture of the Strasbourg Cathedral . erected on the plan of the German masters, largely develops the peculiar tradition of the German school of Gothic architecture. In the sculptures, especially the statues of the Western facade, very strongly expressed the principles and traditions of French art itself.
The Cathedral in Rouen . XIV—XV centuries). The peculiarity of Rouen Cathedral (as, indeed, many other churches of Normandy) is unusually high (130 m) openwork tower above the crossing of the transept (an interesting example of frequent in Normandy the Romanesque architecture of preservation of traditions). Through her stone tent is very typical for sophisticated virtuosity “flamboyant Gothic.”
From Gothic monasteries, especially the famous Abbey of Mont Saint Michel on the border of Normandy and Brittany, situated on a high rock as an impregnable fortress.
Feudal castles at the end of the XIII century were built only with the permission of the king, in the fourteenth century it becomes the privilege of the king and his entourage in the castle complexes appear richly adorned palaces. Locks are gradually turning into entertainment residence, in a hunting Chateau. But urban development (hall, shop buildings, houses) is not reduced. Preserved private house (XV century), the mansion of the banker of king Charles VII, Jacques Coeur in Bourges.
The last great creation of Mature Gothic was the Cathedral of Amiens . famous for its unusually large Central nave — the height of over 40 and a length of 145 m. Among architects of the late French Gothic style there was a saying, vividly describing the uniqueness of the best creations of this era, and along the way, and the eclecticism of the masters themselves: “Who wants to build the perfect Cathedral, he should take from Chartres towers, from Paris, the façade of Amiens longitudinal ship from Reims sculpture”.