The Gothic style mainly manifested in the architecture of temples, cathedrals, churches, monasteries. Developed on the basis of the Romanesque, or rather Burgundian architecture. Unlike the Romanesque style with its round arches, massive walls and small Windows, typical of Gothic arches with a pointed top, a narrow and high towers and columns, the richly decorated facade with carved details (winery, tympanum, archivolt) and multicolor stained glass Lancet Windows. All the style elements that emphasize the vertical.
In Gothic architecture distinguish 3 stages of development: early, Mature (high Gothic), and late.
The Church of the monastery of Saint-Denis , designed by Abbot Suger, is considered the first Gothic architectural structure. In its construction were removed many pillars and interior walls, and the Church has become more graceful look compared to Romanesque “fortress of God”. As a sample, in most cases, took the chapel of Sainte-Chapelle in Paris.
From Ile-de-France (France) Gothic architectural style spread in Western, Central, and southern Europe — in Germany, England, etc. In Italy he reigned long, and, as a “barbaric style” quickly gave way to the Renaissance; and since he came here from Germany, it is still called “stile tedesco” — German style.
With the arrival in the early sixteenth century Renaissance North and zapadeal, Gothic style lost its importance.
Almost all the architecture of Gothic cathedrals is due to one major invention of the time — new skeleton design, which makes these easily recognizable cathedrals.
The system of flying buttresses and buttresses
In the Romanesque cathedrals and churches normally used the barrel vault, which relied on massive thick walls, which inevitably led to the decrease in the volume of the building and created additional difficulties in the construction, not to mention the fact that these were predetermined small number of Windows and their small size. With the advent of the cross vault, columns, flying buttresses, flying buttresses, cathedrals got kind of huge fantastic openwork structures.
The basic principle of design is that the arch is no longer leans against the wall (as in Romanesque buildings), now the pressure of the cross vault and is passed the arch ribs on columns (pillars) and horizontal stress is perceived by the flying buttresses and buttresses. This innovation allowed much easier to design due to redistribution of loads, and the walls turned into a simple lightweight “shell”, the thickness did not affect overall carrying capacity of the building, which allowed to do a lot of Windows and wall paintings, for lack of walls, lost the art of stained glass and sculpture.
In addition, Gothic has consistently applied the Lancet to form the arches, which also reduced their lateral thrust, allowing to direct a significant portion of the pressure arch for support. Pointed arches, which with the development of Gothic architecture become more and more elongated, pointed, expressed the main idea of Gothic architecture — the idea of aspiration of the temple up.
Often in place supports were added on the buttress was pinacle. The pinnacles is completed by the pointed spires of the pinnacles have often constructive. They could be just decorative elements and in the period of Mature Gothic are actively involved in creating the image of a Cathedral.
Almost always constructed two tiers of flying buttresses. Second, the upper tier was designed to support roofs, over time, becoming more steep, and therefore heavier. The second tier of flying buttresses also opposed dawasamu on the roof of the wind.
Due to the fact that the possible span of the arch was determined by the width of the Central nave and, accordingly, the capacity of the Cathedral, which was important for that time, when the Cathedral was one of the main centers of urban life, alongside the town hall.
The most famous architectural monuments