Fortress. — The architecture of fortified places has experienced two eras: the era of the allied wars, when each city could be afraid of attacks from the neighbour, and the age of the barbarian threat, when at stake the very existence of the Empire. In the interim period — the period of “Roman peace” — inner fortresses were abandoned, and all attention was focused on the border zone; the city walls of Rome itself was built up with suburban homes, and a new wall was erected only in 270 ad when Aurelian, when Rome began to approach the barbarians.
Fortifications of the first period were built in the Greek style, as can be seen on the fence of Pompeii . The only significant change is the replacement of earthen walls or walls made of stones pritesannye array from Serbia on a solution.
Only a very few cities within the country was adorned with or expanded their wall at times between August and last era, antonín. These Are Fano, It, Autun. The Empire was going through a period of major works of fortification for the defense of borders. Continue reading
In the XII century huge greatness in Peru reaches civilization of the Incas. Actually, the “Inka” was called the Governor of the existing Empire, descended from the sun God. Inca culture reflects the important influence of the sun. And, unsurprisingly, the main city of the Empire, Cusco, the stories were built of gold, symbolizing the sun. And humbly over the city towered the fortress of Sacsayhuaman.
The Construction Of Sacsayhuaman
In the General plan of the city, resembling a Puma, Sacsayhuaman was in place of teeth. The Incas it was called “the Head of the Puma”. Construction began in the XV century and ended when the eleventh Inca Huayna Capac (1493-1525 years), only taking about 50 years. The work of the Incas, compared to the construction of the ancient pyramids of Egypt and the great wall of China. Researchers estimate on the building was employed about 70 000 people. Continue reading
At the beginning he let’s define the concept of Gothic. The word is derived from Italian. gotico — unusual, barbaric and at first was used as a profanity. The term “Gothic” was introduced in the era of the Renaissance as pejorative designation total medieval skills, regarded as “barbaric”. Gothic called period in the development of medieval art in Western, Central and Eastern part of Europe from the XII to XV-XVI century. For Gothic typical of symbolic – allegorical thinking and conventionality of the artistic language. Gothic art was a cult on purpose and religious topics. It appealed to higher forces of the divine, of eternity, of the Christian worldview.
Gothic in its development is divided into Early Gothic, the heyday of Late Gothic. Gothic covers almost all works of art of this period: sculpture, painting, portrait miniatures, stained glass, fresco and many others.
The Gothic was not an accident. Continue reading