Fortress. — The architecture of fortified places has experienced two eras: the era of the allied wars, when each city could be afraid of attacks from the neighbour, and the age of the barbarian threat, when at stake the very existence of the Empire. In the interim period — the period of “Roman peace” — inner fortresses were abandoned, and all attention was focused on the border zone; the city walls of Rome itself was built up with suburban homes, and a new wall was erected only in 270 ad when Aurelian, when Rome began to approach the barbarians.
Fortifications of the first period were built in the Greek style, as can be seen on the fence of Pompeii . The only significant change is the replacement of earthen walls or walls made of stones pritesannye array from Serbia on a solution.
Only a very few cities within the country was adorned with or expanded their wall at times between August and last era, antonín. These Are Fano, It, Autun. The Empire was going through a period of major works of fortification for the defense of borders. Continue reading
About 17 people, including researchers from Russia, are carrying out an expedition in the Chinese province of Yunnan in the area of Alpine lake Fuxian Hu (the height of 1750 m above sea level). The aim of the expedition is the search for nearly two-hundred-meter depth strange formations resembling pyramids. From the Chinese side the expedition was organized by the archaeological group 722 Komenskeho University, a diving centre Dive and Disport underwater archaeologist Bao Ling, with Russian divers Leonid Gavrilov and Eugen Spiridonov.
Chinese archaeologists did not have the capability to reach such great depths, and lift out the evidence of human activity. However, according to the information received, pyramidal objects are “only” 50-meter depth.
On April 12 lasted 10 days underwater research expedition was successfully completed. Leonid Gavrilov talked about some of the details of the expedition. Continue reading
At the beginning he let’s define the concept of Gothic. The word is derived from Italian. gotico — unusual, barbaric and at first was used as a profanity. The term “Gothic” was introduced in the era of the Renaissance as pejorative designation total medieval skills, regarded as “barbaric”. Gothic called period in the development of medieval art in Western, Central and Eastern part of Europe from the XII to XV-XVI century. For Gothic typical of symbolic – allegorical thinking and conventionality of the artistic language. Gothic art was a cult on purpose and religious topics. It appealed to higher forces of the divine, of eternity, of the Christian worldview.
Gothic in its development is divided into Early Gothic, the heyday of Late Gothic. Gothic covers almost all works of art of this period: sculpture, painting, portrait miniatures, stained glass, fresco and many others.
The Gothic was not an accident. Continue reading