The term “megalith” is not exhaustive, encompasses a very broad, vague and heterogeneous range of structures. Without going into details, the megalith – stone construction of a controversial appointment, as a rule, large size and built with the use of uncertain technology. From the period of construction to our days not got any written evidence, which, coupled with the destructive effects of water, wind, temperature and people makes the study of megaliths very difficult.
Megaliths geography is very wide: they are in Europe . in Asia . in Africa . in North America . in South America … not only in Australia . at least, not yet found. Of course, they are not found in Antarctica . but it is possible that the ice, depending on the area they acquired their own characteristics that are even allowed to split them into culture (Caucasian, South European, British, Indian, and other).
All the megaliths can be classified by design type.
Menhir is the easiest mechanically megalith. He is a boulder of elongated shape, placed vertically. Its shape in cross section varies from almost rectangular to almost round, usually tapering to the top. The height is 20 meters, weight 300 tons.
Dolmen – a megalithic composed of one or more stones placed on flat on a few other boulders or stones. In the Caucasus dolmens are widely distributed to more complex constructions – made of stone slabs. They are actually premises. The orientation almost always corresponds to the arc of the sunrise-sunset and the culmination of the heavenly bodies.
The cromlech is a set of menhirs, arranged concentrically. In the center could be located the dolmen, a rock, a menhir or just piles of stones. The purpose is not clear. Studies indicate with high probability for astronomical functions. The famous Stonehenge shows the position of the Sun in the summer and winter solstice.
Corridor tombs are the camera ranging form long hallway. The entire structure from above covers the ground.
A variety of tombs in the form of galleries . containing several burial chambers, often symmetrically arranged.
Megaliths, most of them have astronomical device. They were intended for determining important astronomical events – the equinox, Eclipse, solstice. It is a kind of Observatory, temple and tomb at the same time. However, to know the mysteries of the megaliths using only archeology carbon analysis, it is not possible..