Of descriptive geometry
About the pyramids will be discussed later. They play a bright role in the history of the development of imaging techniques.
And again the same circuit: assumptions and discoveries, riddles and discoveries. And the same questions: WHERE? WHEN? HOW?
WHERE? We know now several centers of civilization, where they were built remarkably similar according to the plan of the pyramid — a mysterious building is still giving us new discoveries: Egypt, Sudan, Mexico.
WHEN? Egypt — since 2800 years BC Sudan — 500 years BC Mexico — 100-500 years BC
HOW? The main question for us is how we created the idea of structures? Was there any, as we would say now, the “design documentation”? Who stood by the idea of the monument — “customer” Pharaoh, or his talented the architect, or the whole “design team”? A first outline for a future colossus? Most likely in the sand. But the drawing on the sand, so fragile, so ephemeral! And pyramids were built for decades. And the design needed to convey to the successor. It is possible that the drawings (the drawings!) were transferred to papyrus, or even stone. And proof of this is.
Ramessides in the tomb (XIV century BC) was found a plate with an engraved plan of the temple and lying on it a compass — a drawing that already allow the measurement.
One of the statues in the Babylonian Tello holding on her knees the plate with a plan of the Palace. The plan is only the outline of the building, but still it is possible to see the shape and location of towers,gates, etc.
During the expedition of Napoleon to Egypt were found the old image of the facades of the capitals of the columns of Dendera temple built by Cleopatra (first century BC).
And here is a recent find. The architect of Germany Friedrich Hinkel, working on the restoration of the pyramids of the ancient city of Meroe, in the Sudan, found carved in stone with a drawing of one of the pyramids that were built over two thousand years ago.
The pyramids of Meroe are not so great and not as famous as the famous Egyptian, but a lot of them — more than two hundred. On one of them on hewn blocks of Sandstone were discovered carved lines. After clearing it has become clear that it is the drawing — project of a pyramid. Image height— 160 cm. It is so detailed that after determining the image scale failed to correlate it with one of the pyramids of Meroe.
Helped this and the ornament depicted on the project and accurately transferred to an enlarged scale on the building itself. Ancient Nubian builders has provided high precision of basic dimensions, inherent in the project. The measurements showed that the lateral faces of a pyramid in the drawing, is inclined to the vertical at an angle of 72° 45′, as in nature, this angle is 72° 48′, i.e. the error is less than 0.1 %. The error made in the length of the sides of the pyramid base was about 1 %.
Discovery at Meroe suggests that while construction of the other pyramids, including Egypt, the builders were guided by previously created drawings. If they were made of such durable material as stone, it is hoped that archaeologists will help us ever to meet and with these drawings.
The pharaohs were important tombs, people — bread. And the bread got hard. A supporter of Egypt was the Great Nile. Every year, overflowing, destroying the landmark and boundaries on a mosaic of tiny plots, it left a fertile, life-giving silt on a narrow coastal strip. The Nile was deified, he was the bearer of life, composed the hymns: