The fortifications of Ancient Rome
Fortress. — The architecture of fortified places has experienced two eras: the era of the allied wars, when each city could be afraid of attacks from the neighbour, and the age of the barbarian threat, when at stake the very existence of the Empire. In the interim period — the period of “Roman peace” — inner fortresses were abandoned, and all attention was focused on the border zone; the city walls of Rome itself was built up with suburban homes, and a new wall was erected only in 270 ad when Aurelian, when Rome began to approach the barbarians.
Fortifications of the first period were built in the Greek style, as can be seen on the fence of Pompeii . The only significant change is the replacement of earthen walls or walls made of stones pritesannye array from Serbia on a solution.
Only a very few cities within the country was adorned with or expanded their wall at times between August and last era, antonín. These Are Fano, It, Autun. The Empire was going through a period of major works of fortification for the defense of borders. When Tiberius began to build a fortified line connecting the Rhine with the Danube river between Cologne and Regensburg. When Trajan this line was finished and continued along the lower reaches of the Danube. When adriana wascreated second defensive line in the Roman possessions in Britain.
Regardless of old cities, which reinforces in the traditional system, the Romans distributed along the border lines of the permanent camps, which were real military garrisons, of which the best preserved Trasmessi camp. The Romans also built a separate krepostta probably like those ruins that are found on the border of the desert in Algeria.
Most of the extant fortifications belongs to those built by the Romans under the threat of invading barbarians. At all is the imprint of haste; the ruins of them testify to the lack of a systematic plan. Clumps often associated with towers, and this lack of communication brings to mind the rule Philo recommending this dismembered building as a measure of preventing uneven precipitation of the towers and curtains. However, the case is explained in this case is easier: the city is preoccupied, primarily, to protect itself with a wall for protection from imminent danger, in order subsequently to supply of the tower, depending on time and resources he will have.
From this period dates the Roman city walls. The building of fortifications around all cities of Gaul, along the paths, under the threat of invasion of the barbarians (Tours, Bourges, and Senlis etc.). In these points had to be limited by lack of funds only to strengthen parts of the city, i.e. rather the construction of shelters than the actual fortresses.
Barbarians invaded the Byzantine Empire in the East later, military installations show the same haste, i.e. as close to the threat. We see almost everywhere the wall, hastily erected, and towers added to them subsequently (Constantinople, Nicaea, Kutahya, Edessa).
City gate. — The only decoration of the Roman city walls are the gates. Judging by the example of Mantinea, the Greeks, apparently, are very sparingly decorated the gates of their cities. The Etruscans used the arch as a decorative element, erected a monumental gate, a tradition which can be traced in Falerii, Volterra and Perouse. As an example, the gate of the Imperial era we reproduce in figure 349 the facade of one of the main entrances of the city of Autun.