The history of the art Theatre
In a sense, the theatre in the Renaissance reached its peak, having mastered almost all possible genres, types and directions. Then have formed two main types of organization of the theatres. If to use modern terminology, they can be defined as a repertory theatre (when more or less stable company of actors put on plays based on the works of various playwrights) and entreprise (when under a certain theatre project specially going different experts — this comes from the productions of the mysteries).
Art of the Western middle ages, XII-XV centuries.
Christianity, which replaced barbarism, brought an enormous transformation. But the attitude of the man changed. If the antiquity has advanced human form, but now man is the source of sin. There is a feeling of uncertainty, fear of the inevitable judgment. The Church became the center of culture. The role of the Church in the development of architecture, sculpture, painting becomes decisive, the Church dictated the originality of the forms, techniques, ornamentation, color. Approved type of cross-domed Church. The Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is particularly luxurious and the pattern of deviation from a realistic depiction of saints in the side styling.
The Romanesque style cathedrals in Toulouse, Arles, Oxford,Lund, which was established in the form of a Latin cross. They are impregnable: surrounded by water on an island or on a river, raised up high, with a high wall and is spanned by a bridge, is provided with a defensive wall. Severe and monumental style of the Church–fortress with a system of arches, with a small number of narrow Windows (height 3 m) and the brightest altar, the frescoes are almost absent. The exterior walls and the interior is almost not decorated. With some exceptions in the Western part of the Cathedral is sometimes included sculpture: the shapes resemble pillars – a calm and static, conditional disproportionate faces of the saints, the head is ovoid in shape, they are fused with a stone wall. This culture shows a complete lack of connection with Roman art. The access of Roman art has been suspended for several centuries. The construction of the Church Notre-Dame-La-Grand in Poitiers XI-XII centuries in France.
The walls of the feudal dwellings were supplied with round or elongated defensive towers. The cellars were stores of all that was manufactured in the feudal household. In the thick walls of the dwelling were inserted narrow window, the room was illuminated by torches, which created a disturbing play of light and shade. Constant internal wars has created severe Romanesque art, dictated the style of strength and earthiness.
With 2 floors. XII century begin to change, and from the middle of the XIII century are the new trends. Amplified large feudal city, Europe being consolidated is primarily Paris, Cologne, Berlin. The Christian religion has gained confidence and strength. Philosophical doctrine arise, develop, science, medicine. Now people often refer to the culture of antiquity.
The Cathedral, built at the expense of citizens, is changing its style. The Cathedral was to convey the power, the wealth, the economic condition of the city and as such he was at a new stage of development. Now a guard tower of the Cathedral is replaced by the Lancet add-ons, which gave grandeur and elegance. Developed Gothic art, approved a new type of Church Gothic.
Gothic style is the upward aspiration (the Cathedral’s height of 120-130 m.), the shape of a cross is preserved, instead of three creates five passes, approves the system of pointed arches, slender columns, beam columns, which decorate the interior of the Cathedral. These arise cathedrals in Paris, Chartres, Bourges, Reims , Strasbourg, Cologne , Berlin, York, Canterbury, and Westminster Abbey in London.
The Gothic Cathedral is unthinkable without such art as the art of stained glass: Gothic rose (20 m in diameter) with religious content, contrast colors (Aqua green and orange-yellow), literally charmed the parishioners. When you enter her beauty is not noticed, and at the output, with the penetration of daylight “rose” reveals the full power of its bright colors. Precision design, Arabesque, Oriental and red-orange glass, symbolizing the sun, was now left to the people hope. The enormity of the Cathedral, shrouded in fog gray walls seemed unreal, aspiring to a world of dreams and dreams.
This time had a high mastery of stone working. Silver-grey stone turns walls (thickness 4-5 m.) literally in lace, wall it’s airy, weightless and dynamic, rising. The abundance of sculptures that are spread over three tiers in the Western part of the portal arch in the interior is based on the column where stands the Saint, – all this also underlines the scale of the airiness, lightness and elegance. The idea of the sinfulness of the body, so the body covered by clothing, but the saints have already been humanized, they are depicted in different ways, everyone lives their sexual life.
Brick Gothic developed in Germany. The transition to the perpendicular style in Gothic England. Also the development of the Gothic cathedrals we find in Czechoslovakia and Poland. Changes have occurred in the late Gothic sculpture and painting: there is great realism, uses a rich range of colors. In Italy the Gothic style was not developed; there before other countries began the art of the Renaissance, which relied on the culture of antiquity and middle ages.
Arts description the Gothic Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris – Notre Dame Cathedral we find in the novel by the romantic writer Victor Hugo.
Theatre (from the Greek. theatron – place for spectacles, spectacle), the main kind of entertainment art. The generic concept of the theatre is divided into types of theatrical art: drama theater, Opera, ballet, pantomime theatre, etc. the origin of the term related to ancient Greek theatre where it was in the auditorium (from the Greek verb “theaomai” – looking). Today, however, the value of this term is extremely diverse. It is additionally used in the following cases: 1. Call the theatre building, specially constructed or adapted for the performances. 2. Institution, an enterprise engaged in the performances as well as the whole of his staff, providing the rental of theatrical performances (Theater of the Moscow city Council; tour of the Theatre on Taganka, etc.)